Typical and standardized projects, strictly speaking, have not given up their positions for seventy years, but recently the agenda associated with them has received a new development. KB Strelka held a competition for standardized housing projects; a similar task was set in the program for the modernization of house-building factories. A year ago, a competition was held for projects of nursing homes. Now there are proposals for the implementation of a similar task in relation to hospital buildings. The UNK project concept is one of them; at the competition she took 2nd place in the nomination for the largest buildings, hospitals, designed for 400 beds.
The very name of the concept - "Health Constructor" - contains two of its main goals and characteristics. "Constructor" - says that the flexibility and modularity inherent in the project allows you to scale it for different conditions, build in queues and vary the structure. "Health" - indicates the ideological basis of the imaginative solution of the building, which is considered not as a place for the sick, but as a space for recovery.
“People's health is the cornerstone of our vision. For this, both the appropriate functional zoning and the architecture of the building itself were developed, no longer hospital, but reminiscent of a health center. Well, since it was still supposed to be a typical re-use project, we made a simple, understandable solution that could be scaled and varied so that there would not be a situation when these identical hospitals reappear in all cities”.
Constructor of functions and diagrams
Let's start with the site. Often, when a project, taken from a bank of standard solutions, lands on a specific territory, there are difficulties in “binding”, entailing additional costs. To prevent this from happening, UNK projects scale the "constructor" principle to the "playing field" itself, i.e. they propose to functionally zone the site in accordance with a certain logic. The territory of the hospital is divided into four zones - a private area for hospital patients, a public space with guest parking, isolated blocks (for example, an infectious diseases department) and a transport and technical area. The transport scheme is tied to this: five separate entrances are always organized on the territory, which separate the flows of visitors and personnel, ambulance stations and isolated departments.
In the same logic, in a finished form, "in a package" the concept of improvement is provided: denser greenery for the chamber courtyards of hospitals, "green" curtains for the pathological building, lawns in the area of the main pedestrian paths, convenient location of staff parking, loading points, helicopter ambulance platforms.
Now about the constructor of the building itself. In order to be able to relatively quickly adapt the project to various initial data and environments - for example, to build a hospital in Yakutia or increase paid departments in it according to the request - the volume structure is divided into 11 functional blocks that can be typed like cubes. At the same time, the blocks are sufficiently autonomous, they can be removed or, on the contrary, increased functions, as well as divide the sequence of construction depending on the tasks.
The core of any such designer is the central group of public spaces with a lobby and administration, around which the rest gather horizontally and vertically. These are groups of polyclinics - for children and adults, paid departments, an obstetric department and three more isolated blocks, which, according to technology, should be distanced from the rest - the infectious and pathological department and an ambulance station.
The central group of premises is not just an entrance with a registry, but a full-fledged public space where you can relax and meet patients, buy flowers, go to a pharmacy, and have a snack. Making this rather spacious area the conceptual center of the hospital, UNK project emphasize the humanity of the modern interpretation of the function itself - people come to the hospital not to get sick and suffer, but to heal. Therefore, on renders, the entrance lobby looks more like the lobby of a sanatorium, fitness club or community center.
Further, the concept establishes certain rules for the layout of blocks - what to put on which side, in order to facilitate navigation for both doctors and patients, as well as reduce the time of their movement along hospital corridors. The function also implies the mandatory separation of the flows of personnel and patients.
On the ground floor, next to the entrance block, there are polyclinics and an emergency room, admission departments of hospitals, as well as a department of palliative and outpatient oncological care. On the second floor there is an assembly hall, equidistant from the laboratory departments, functional diagnostics and X-ray. On the third floor, the hospitals are connected with the operating unit and the intensive care unit. The fourth floor is occupied by an obstetric department and an adult clinic. Fifth - neurological, sixth cardiological department. In the underground level, the premises for the staff are grouped - wardrobes, a dining room, an administration, a gym.
Benefits of standardization
A complex and rather rigid hospital technology requires special knowledge from the designers, so it is easier to make hospitals exactly typical. However, according to the idea of the UNK project, this does not prevent the project from being flexible - the modularity inherent in it is ensured by the uniformity of the constructive step and the typical width of the premises in the block. This, in turn, allows it to be adapted at the design and operation stages. For example, a grid of 5400x4800 mm fits two rooms of 12 m2 each, or one of 24 m2 - this means that you can easily reduce or increase the number of treatment and treatment rooms or beds in hospitals, if necessary. "Konstruktor" also allows you to attach paid branches, if necessary, or adjust the structure to the particulars of the site configuration.
Identity and standard
As for the architectural imagery of the building with a typical approach, it will not suffer here either. The authors suggested not to deprive the hospital of regional originality due to the inherent in the concept of the possibility of experimenting with the shaping of the entrance block. Its architecture can reflect both special functional requirements and specific identity. The central group of rooms can be in the form of a yurt, igloo, or houses with pitched roofs. Thus, the central “atypical” element of the building, to a greater extent “touching” the eyes of visitors than the others, solves the issue of individualization and the boring uniformity of standard hospitals.
Reception "lives" in the same plane with the principle of industrial construction - quick erection is achieved by using a system of facade modules. They will be delivered to the site already large-format, assembled and ready for installation, which fully ensures the required speed and economy of construction. The absence of scaffolding - and the modules are mounted from the inside of the building, from the floor - the ability to carry out installation in parallel with the construction of the monolith - can reduce the term of facade work to 1.5 - 2 months.
The background pattern of the hospital facades was compiled on the basis of an identical approach, from modules of three standard sizes: for hospitals - in the width of the ward (3.6 m), for clinics - 1.35 m wide, suitable for all types of offices, and for the rest of the blocks - a universal version of 1.8 m. The height is the same everywhere, 3.2 m, and is equal to the height of a typical floor.
In addition, the design of the facades can vary in different colors, have accent planes, on which, as Yuliy Borisov says, “you can apply a different pattern, get a different meaning, taking into account the peculiarities of the place, or mentality, or climate”. The modules allow you to change the thickness of the insulation, change the percentage of glazing, make balconies in the hospital, use local material in the decoration - in general, build, in fact, different buildings.
Thus, Health Designer solves two main problems of the institute of standard design, related to the issues of individualization in the standard. First, due to its flexibility and adaptability, it allows you to avoid too costly "binding", which is often the case for projects from a bank of standard solutions. And secondly, to prevent the uniformity of hospitals, where the function completely "overwhelms" the architecture. The modern interpretation of the re-use project from the architects of UNK project combines technology and architecture in a complex and harmonious manner, based on the scheme of mutual organization of blocks, so convenient that it acquires the features of universality, and endowing it within the concept with the maximum possible flexibility at the macro and micro levels. That, as a result, has all the necessary qualities to achieve the main goal stated by the authors - the transformation of the hospital into a humane and effective space: a place of healing and recovery.
1/9 Health constructor. Underground floor plan © UNK project
2/9 Health constructor. Ground floor plan © UNK project
3/9 Health constructor. Second floor plan © UNK project
4/9 Health constructor. Third floor plan © UNK project
5/9 Health constructor. Fourth floor plan © UNK project
6/9 Health constructor. Fifth floor plan © UNK project
7/9 Health constructor. Sixth floor plan © UNK project
8/9 Health constructor. Ambulance ground floor plan © UNK project
9/9 Health constructor. Ambulance second floor plan © UNK project