If you are at the construction stage, or maybe you have already become the proud owner of a house or a garage with a flat roof, it's time to think about whether to create a delightful oasis, a cozy picnic area or an outdoor sports hall there, on the roof?
Neighbors will be jealous
Having made the roof exploitable, it is easy to turn a feature of architecture into an indisputable advantage, a highlight of the building. Moreover, you are not killing two, but several birds with one stone:
• protect the roof waterproofing from the destructive effects of precipitation and ultraviolet radiation; • save on heating, since additional layers of the operated roof help to reduce heat loss; • you get a spectacular, beautifully arranged additional space for the same money; • significantly increase the external originality and presentability of the house. At the construction stage, it is much easier to plan and provide for an exploited roof in the project. If we are talking about a finished building, be sure to make additional calculations, since its arrangement significantly increases the load on the building, and therefore is associated with certain risks. Having received the go-ahead from the designers, you can proceed to the most pleasant thing - the choice of the type of roof. There are two of them:
- operated with different types of topcoats; - green roof, on which the planting of living plants is provided. Each species has its own advantages and characteristics. It is worth making a choice based on personal preferences, the availability of free time that will be required to care for the plants, the size of the roof and the needs of the family.
Therefore, we will dwell on each of the options in more detail. Let's clarify right away that both varieties are quite difficult to install, require certain skills and knowledge, so it is better to entrust the creation of a "new floor" to trusted roofers. Traditional Approach
If space permits, a jogging track and a small pool with sun loungers can be built on the roof. Another option is to put a table with an umbrella and pretend that you are drinking coffee somewhere in the narrow streets of Rome. And you can make a playground for children, especially if the area around the house is small (but here you must definitely provide for protective fences). In fact, you arrange a terrace from the roof, and your imagination will tell you how to use it.
In accordance with the purpose, you need to choose the right topcoat. It should be not only beautiful, but also strong, durable, non-slip, UV-resistant, environmentally friendly. The material simply must withstand changes and extreme temperatures, because it will have to serve faithfully in the midday summer heat, and in frosts and thaws. In addition, it is better to choose a decorative coating with drainage properties - this will not allow puddles to form. Deck planks, stone or ceramic tiles and artificial surfaces such as imitation of a lawn or rubberized mats correspond most of all to these characteristics. Each type of material weighs differently, and this should also be taken into account in the calculations.
But the most important thing is strict adherence to the installation technology of the operated roof. Its "pie" consists of several components, and, as in cooking, a violation of the recipe and the consistency of ingredients is fraught with a complete fiasco. The layers are as follows:
• base, usually concrete; • vapor barrier; • slope-forming layer; • insulation with a thickness of 150 mm; • waterproofing; • drainage layer with drainage and heating; • finishing coating.
There is the so-called inversion technology, designed for very intensive operation of the roof. In it, the insulation is placed not under the waterproofing, but above it. Please note that the thermal insulation for this type of roof must be able to work in contact with moisture. Personal celestial
Fans of eco-style housing will love the green roof. It can be extensive - when the vegetation is represented by modest lawn grasses, mosses and low-growing unpretentious carpet plants. This is a fairly easy option, since it does not require a thick layer of soil, and the green carpet will not require special care.
Extensive coatings with a special lathing can be placed even on a pitched roof, provided that the angle of inclination does not exceed 45 degrees.
An intensive green roof is a full-fledged personal plot at a sufficient distance from the ground. Closer to heaven, so to speak. If the design of the building allows, then here you can place alpine slides, ponds with fountains, shrubs and dwarf trees, put a small gazebo or somehow organize a recreation area. This is definitely not a cheap idea, but it's worth it!
For those who call it a whim, you can safely convey the information that this roof has significant advantages, such as:
• high energy saving characteristics; • protection of the roof from the harmful effects of the environment; • protection against mechanical damage; • additional noise insulation; • environmental friendliness; • aesthetics. The device of a green roof is practically the same as that of a traditional exploited one (with the exception of a few specific top layers): base, insulation, waterproofing, root barrier with special impregnation, drainage slope-forming layer, filtration geotextile layer (retains precipitation and prevents the soil from slipping), special lightweight soil and the plants themselves. Thin places
And yet the pleasure that the transformed roof will give you depends primarily on the correct installation and the quality of the materials used in this case. Since you have to deal with high humidity and an aggressive environment, you should pay attention to such qualities as water resistance, fire and environmental safety, mechanical strength, resistance to chemical attack or fungal attack. And bearing in mind the high cost of installation work, you should also take a closer look at the durability indicator.
From the standpoint of these requirements, let us consider the solutions of the global leader in the production of stone wool - the ROCKWOOL company. This material is made from basalt rocks, it has many advantages of natural stone, such as strength, harmlessness to health and the environment, which is confirmed by the EcoMaterial Absolute certificate, durability (the service life, according to the conclusion of the Research Institute of Building Physics, reaches 50 years). Due to their properties, stone wool slabs are both heat and sound insulating material, and also prevent the spread of fire in the event of a fire. Stone wool can withstand temperatures up to 1000 ° C.
Stone wool is not afraid of plant roots, teeth of rodents, it is not a breeding ground for fungi and bacteria. Finally, it is convenient that among the company's products there are all components that not only optimally fit, but also enhance the performance properties of each other, making the roof truly reliable.
For example, waterproofing. It is impossible to overestimate its importance in arranging a green roof, like any other. Poor quality material or installation errors will not just nullify all efforts. They will jeopardize the further well-being of the entire structure. Bituminous-polymer, PVC-, EPDM-membranes will qualitatively protect from atmospheric precipitation or artificial watering of plants.
On the other side of the roofing cake, there is an equally important vapor barrier layer that protects the insulation from condensation and moisture coming from the room. It should be noted that stone wool itself also has a high vapor permeability, unlike, for example, some types of polymeric materials, due to which moisture stagnation can occur, which negatively affects the effectiveness of thermal insulation and the durability of the entire roof . The ROCKbarrier vapor barrier film with a thickness of only 200 microns can serve faithfully for 50 years, like the insulation itself. Of course, provided that a slope-forming layer and a drainage system are created on the roof.
By the way, one of the company's developments the system - RUF UKLON - was created in order to provide drainage from a flat roof as simply and efficiently as possible. Designed on an all-inclusive basis, it consists of pre-cast stone wool blocks of variable thickness and includes two sets: main slope and counter slope. You can learn more about the system on the website: http://www.rockwool.ru/products/roofs/flat-roof-structures/13/. All the necessary calculations for the installation will be performed by the specialists of the manufacturing company based on the characteristics of the object. Filling - the main ingredient The heart of the roofing cake is insulation. As a rule, the first question that arises in this regard is: how thick should it be? Experts recommend installing an insulating layer with a thickness of 150–250 mm (depending on climatic conditions). ROCKWOOL products meet this requirement by using only one layer of stone wool, which favorably affects the speed and cost of work. When some types of polymeric materials are used in flat roofs in accordance with fire safety rules , in any case, it is necessary to provide for a second layer of thermal insulation adjacent to the profiled sheet, for example, from the same non-combustible stone wool. In this case, the installation of thermal insulation will be more difficult and will take twice as long. At the same time, tests show that only the bottom layer affects the strength of the structure.
For many years, designers and installers preferred a two-layer installation of thermal insulation, with the upper layer being mounted so as to cover the joints in the lower one. Thus, we tried to avoid cold bridges through which heat is lost. However, experts from NIIMosstroy tested double-density ROCKWOOL slabs and proved that when they are laid in one layer, the heat-holding capacity is as close as possible to the indicators of laying the slabs in two layers . The total thickness of the insulation during the tests was equal. Analysis of heat loss through the seams (less than 2 mm) during the experiment showed that in both cases they are also equal. That is, the version about cold bridges with a single-layer laying of stone wool of sufficient thickness turned out to be just a myth. But the fact that such an installation saves money, time and effort is true.
Insulation materials RUF BATTS D OPTIMA can serve as a worthy example of double density stone wool slabs. The unique technology by which they are made has no analogues in our country. The bottom line is that the upper, thinner layer 60 mm thick has a higher density and strength - 205 kg / m³. The lower one is less dense and light - 120 kg / m³ with a thickness of 200 mm. Thus, the load on the roof is reduced, and the quality characteristics of thermal insulation remain as high as possible. In installation, these plates are also much more convenient.
Taking into account the climatic features and the degree of load on the operating roof, you can choose as an alternative stone wool RUF BATTS D STANDARD or RUF BATTS D EXTRA. With the same double density, they are distinguished by the characteristics of the layers: 180/110 kg / m³ and 235/130 kg / m³, respectively. The compressive strength of the products is at least 45–65 kPa, respectively.
Any of the listed products is conveniently packaged, which is important during transportation, the upper - hard - layer is additionally marked, and the boards themselves are produced in four size ranges, which further simplifies installation and minimizes the amount of scrap.
BONDROCK stone wool slabs are another product that can facilitate the transformation of a trivial flat roof into an exploitable dream roof. They are slightly thinner, but they are also made using double density technology and are protected from above with fiberglass. This environmentally friendly material is needed to be able to directly melt bitumen onto stone wool, while maintaining all the previous characteristics, including high fire safety.
As for the installation of all of the above types of insulation, in the case of an exploited roof, they have another indisputable advantage. They can only be secured with ballast. That is, a heavy topcoat makes it possible to do without additional fasteners for stone slabs or special adhesives.
If we talk about real cold bridges - the joints of the roof with the walls, pipe outlets or exit to the roof, here the installation of insulation should be taken very carefully. Ideally, the insulation loop around the perimeter of a flat roof should be closed with wall insulation. And where stone wool will need to be cut, for example, when bypassing the chimney, it is better to do it with a margin of 10-30 mm, since the fibrous structure of the material allows you to achieve a very tight fit. Steam and waterproofing films must be brought onto the vertical surface of the pipe or parapet.
By the way, about the parapets. Before a unique exploitable terrace transforms the exterior of your home instead of a banal flat roof, take care of your safety. In addition to choosing fire safe and sustainable materials, physical fencing should also be considered. Building standards require that the roof at a height of 30 m from the ground (nine-storey building) be protected by a parapet 1.1 m high. Taller buildings should have fences with a height of 1.2 m. But even at the second floor, a fence of the same height is not superfluous will be. Especially if up there you have created an adorable fairytale world for your children.
____________________________________________  - Consequence of calculations for moisture accumulation under section 8 of SP 71.13330.2017 “Thermal protection of buildings”. The vapor permeability coefficients of materials are given for reference in the same place - in Appendix T.
 - Recommendations of VNIIPO EMERCOM of Russia (ed. 2015) "Fire resistance and fire hazard of coating structures based on steel profiled sheet with polymer insulation" (Section 6).
 - Technical conclusion based on the results of the work: determination of the thermal characteristics of wall enclosing structures using mineral wool slabs ROCKWOOL Russia Mineralnaya Vata CJSC, issued by the Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction "NIIMosstroy", 2015